Salah is the way to praise ALLAH and bow before Him. Our beloved Prophet (P.B.U.H) showed the specific way that is supposed to be followed while offering pray. It is obligatory for every Muslim to follow this procedure while offering prayer otherwise his prayer would not be considered as intact.
Niyyah or Intention
Firstly, a person should have intention to offer Salah. There is no need to reveal the intention in words but if one likes to do it, there is no objection in it as well. When a person does ablution and starts moving towards the mosque or when he stands on the place to offer his prayer shows his intention to offer prayer.
Takbeer e Tehreema
Takbeer e tehreema means the starting takbeer. This is an important part of Salah as it is the start of Salah and it stops the connection of the person and world and starts the connection of that person with his lord. Takbeer is the start of Salah and tasleem is the end of Salah. The person raises his hands towards his head until the lobe of ears or his shoulders.
Qayyam is the condition when the person stands straight and hold his hands together on his chest or under the belly button. Then he recites a supplication called Sana. There are many different supplications which one can recite at that time. These supplications are to be read only in first rakat and not in any other rakat. After supplication, one recites Tauz, Tasmiyah, Surah al Fatiha and then Surah Ikhlas. Surah Ikhlas can also be replaced by any other surah.
After qayyam, a person bends towards his knees by saying ALLAH hu Akbar and grabs his knees with his hands firmly and recites the prostration of Rukku three times.
After Rukku, one again stands straight by saying ALLAH Hu Akbar. This position is called as kooma.
Then the person sits to bow down in front of Allah by saying ALLAH Hu Akbar. After sitting, the person bows down by placing his head and nose on floor. The nose and head both should touch the floor properly. Then he reads the prostration of sujood.
After one sajda, the person sits by saying ALLAH Hu Akbar. This sitting posture is called jalsa. After it, one again bows down in front of Allah, recites prostration and stands for qayyam by saying ALLAH Hu akbar.
Here the first rakat has ended.
The persons stands in qayyam and without reciting the sana or anyother supplication, he recites Tauz, Tasmiyah and Surah Al Fatiha and Surah Ikhlas. Then again repeat the above mentioned procedure till 2nd sujood. After sujood, the person recites tashad.
After sujood, person sits by putting his hands on his thighs and read prostration of tashad. And then kalima e shahdah by opening his first finger and pointing it out towards sky. This is the sign of him giving shahdah of oneness of Allah.
Narrated `Abdullah bin Mas`ud: We used to say the greeting, name and greet each other in the prayer. Allah’s Apostle heard it and said:– Say, ‘at-tahiyyatu lil-lahi was-salawatu wat-taiyibatu . Assalamu ‘Alaika aiyuha-n-Nabiyu warahmatu- l-lahi wa-barakatuhu. _ Assalamu alaina wa-‘ala ‘ibadi-l-lahi as-salihin.. Ashhadu an la ilaha illa-l-lah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `Abdu hu wa Rasuluh. (All the compliments are for Allah and all the prayers and all the good things (are for Allah). Peace be on you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings (are on you). And peace be on us and on the good (pious) worshipers of Allah. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Apostle.) So, when you have said this, then you have surely sent the greetings to every good (pious) worshipper of Allah, whether he be in the Heaven or on the Earth. Sahih bukhari book of salah hadith 1202
If one has to read only two Rakat then he should recite Darood e Ibraheemi and supplication after kalima e shahdah. There are many supplications which can be read at this time.
At the very end of Salah, one should turn his head towards right and say
اسلام علیکم و رحمۃ اللہ و برکاتہ
And then turn the head towards left and recite the same supplication.
Three or Four Rakat and Witr
If one should read 3 rakat or four then the following process should be followed.
If one has to offer a prayer with three Rakat then after reciting tashad and kalima e shahdah in second Rakat, one should stand again. Starting from Tauz, Tasmiyah and Surah Al Fatiha till kalima e shahdah and then he should recite darood e Ibraheemi and supplication then tasleema.
If one have to pray 4 rakat then after reading kalima e shahdah in second Rakat, one should stand and repeat the first two rakat again without reciting sana. After kalima shahdah, darood e Ibraheemi, supplication and Tasleemah should be recited and end the prayer.
For witr, one shoukd read the 2 rakat salah first. But when he does sujood in 2nd Rakat, he should stand by saying Allah hu Akbar withour reciting tashad. Then he should does qayyam for 3rd rakat. After Surah Al Fatiha, one should recite dua e kanoot or any other supplication. If one forgets to recite any supplication or even dua e kanoot then there is n need for sujood e sahav. After dua e kanoot, one should continue the normal procedure of Salah like Rukku, sujood till tasleema.
Difference of opinion of Ulamas
Different scholars have different opinions about many sunnahs of Salah. One should focus on offering Salah and should avoid these differences. ALLAH is Ghafoor and Raheem, He knows best and in sha allah He will forgive us for our mistakes. Islam is not rigid so avoid differnces and spread unity. Its better to be happy over the similarities rather than to argue over differences.
Sujood e Sehav
Sujood sahav is actually a prostration to Allah in order to compensation for any mistake in the Salah. There are only two conditions in which sujood sahav is necessary. For all the other small mistakes, Allah is the best of forgivers and there is no need to perform sajda sahav.
- If one forgets to read tashad and stand to read the next rakat.
- If one increases or decreases a rakat of Salah.
If one forgets to read tashad in 2nd rakat and stands to read the third rakat then sajda sahav is necessary to perform. If a person does not stand properly as a qayam his body is still bended and he remembers about the forgotten tashad then he can sit immediately and complete his tashad. Then there is no need of Sujood e sahav. Similarly if a person forgets to read tashad and say tasleema after sujood then he have to perform sujood e sahav.
Increase or Decrease of Rakat
If by mistake, there is an increase or decrease of a rakat in salah, then sujood e sahav in obligatory.
Narrated’ `Abdullah: Once Allah’s Apostle offered five rak`at in the Zuhr prayer, and somebody asked him whether there was some increase in the prayer. Allah’s Apostle said, What is that? He said, You have offered five rak`at. So Allah’s Apostle performed two prostrations of Sahu after Taslim. Sahih bukhari book of sajda sahav hadith 1226
Procedure of Sujood e Sahav
Sujood is sahav is performed by two methods.
If the above mentioned mistakes have taken place during Salah and one remembers it before tasleemah then he can perform prostration before tasleemah. If person wants to do sujood e sahav before tasleemah then he should do two sujood after darood e ibraheemi n dua and then say tasleemah immediately.
Narrated `Abdullah bin Buhaina: Allah’s Apostle once led us in a prayer and offered two rak`at and got up (for the third rak`a) without sitting (after the second rak`a). The people also got up with him, and when he was about to finish his prayer, we waited for him to finish the prayer with Taslim but he said Takbir before Taslim and performed two prostrations while sitting and then finished the prayer with Taslim. Sahih bukhari book of sajda sahav hadith 1224
If one remembers about the mistake after saying tasleemah then he should again prostrate twice then read tasheed, kalima Shahdah, darood e ibraheemi, dua and tasleemah.
Which of Two Mentioned Methods is Most Recommended
Both methods are correct but the later one is more recommanded. It is not proper to interupt salah in between but if one does it, then its not a problem. If one do prostration after tasleemah then it is more appropriate.
Time for sajda sahav
There is no fix time of sajda sahav actually. If one remembers after 10 hours about his mistake during the salah, he can perform sujood e sahav at that time.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet led us in the `Asr or the Zuhr prayer and finished it with Taslim. Dhul-Yadain said to him, O Allah’s Apostle! Has the prayer been reduced? The Prophet asked his companions in the affirmative. So Allah’s Apostle I offered two more rak`at and then performed two prostrations (of Sahu). Sa`d said, I saw that ‘Urwa bin Az-Zubair had offered two rak`at in the Maghrib prayer and finished it with Taslim. He then talked (and when he was informed about it) he completed the rest of his prayer and performed two prostrations, and said, ‘The Prophet prayed like this.’ Sahih Bukhari book of sajda sahav hadith 1227
Proof of Sujood e Sahav from Hadith
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, When the call for prayer is made, Satan takes to his heels passing wind so that he may not hear the Adhan and when the call is finished he comes back, and when the Iqama is pronounced, Satan again takes to his heels, and when the Iqama is finished he comes back again and tries to interfere with the person and his thoughts and say, Remember this and that (which he has not thought of before the prayer) , till the praying person forgets how much he has prayed. If anyone of you does not remember whether he has offered three or four rak`at then he should perform two prostrations of Sahu while sitting. Sahih bukhari book of sajda sahav hadith 1231.
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